Questionnaires and other bedside procedures used to Quantify Hearing and Balance Disorders
Timothy C. Hain,
MD Page last modified:
April 5, 2014
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It is often useful to get a formal measurement of subjective symptoms accompaning a hearing and balance disorder. These questionnaires are generally published in publically accessible journals, and for this reason, they are not proprietary. While using the names of these instruments often sounds impressive, when you look at them carefully, you will see that these are often composed of very simple questions/answers. In our opinion, thats OK, but we think it is pretentious to use the names of these simple lists of questions as if they were magical incantations. We prefer functional names (such as the ABC) to instruments named after their authors.
Below are some of the questionnaires that we have found useful.
|Questionnaire used to quantify balance
||Link to questionnaire
|Activities specific Balance Confidence Scale (ABC)
||Powell and Meyers, 1995; Whitney et al, 1999
|Berg Balance Scale. This is commonly used.
|Berg et al, 1989.
|Chambliss Mobility Survey
|Dizziness Handicap Inventory. The DHI is commonly used.
||Jacobson and Newman, 1990, and several others below.
|Hearing screen (AAA version)
This link was dead as of 3/2010 (TCH).
|Hearing questionnaire (NIH version)
|Falls efficacy scale.
||Tinetti, Richman et al. 1990
|Modified falls efficacy scale (MFES)
||Hill, Schwartz and others, 1996
|Medical outcomes study short form 36 (SF-36). The link provides a public-domain source for this questionnaire. A local copy of it is here.
Enloe and Sheilds, 1997.
|Tinnitus History Questionnaire
|Vestibular Activities of Daily Living. We don't know of anyone using this.
||Cohen et al, 2000
There are also numerous tasks used to quantify balance. These primarily involve having people stand in such a way that balance is challenged, and measuring their missteps. Examples are:
- BESS (balance error scoring system)
- Duncan Reach test.
- Fregley ataxia battery
- CISS or "Foam and Dome"
- Berg K, Wood-Dauphinee S, Williams JI, Gayton D: Measuring balance in the elderly: Preliminary development of an instrument.
Physiotherapy Canada, 41:304-311, 1989.
- Chambless, D.L., Caputo, G.C., Jasin, S.E., Gracely, E.J., & Williams, C. (1985). The Mobility Inventory for Agoraphobia. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 23, 35-44. Original paper on the development of the scale, reliability, discriminative validity, treatment sensitivity, and concurrent and construct validity.
- Cohen, H. S., et al. (2000). "Development of the vestibular disorders activities
of daily living scale." Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 126(7): 881-7.
- Cohen, H. S., et al. (2000). "Application of the vestibular disorders activities
of daily living scale." Laryngoscope 110(7): 1204-9.
- Enloe, L. J. and R. K. Shields (1997). "Evaluation of health-related quality
of life in individuals with vestibular disease using disease-specific and
general outcome measures." Phys Ther 77(9): 890-903.
- Hill, K. D., J. A. Schwarz, et al. (1996). "Fear of falling revisited."
Arch Phys Med Rehabil 77(10): 1025-9.
- Jacobson, G. P. and J. H. Calder (1998). "A screening version of the Dizziness
Handicap Inventory (DHI-S)." Am J Otol 19(6): 804-8.
- Jacobson, G. P. and C. W. Newman (1990). "The development of the Dizziness
Handicap Inventory." Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 116(4): 424-7.
- Jacobson, G. P., C. W. Newman, et al. (1991). "Balance function test correlates
of the Dizziness Handicap Inventory." J Am Acad Audiol 2(4): 253-60.
- Jacobson G, Calder J (1998) A screening version of the dizziness handicap inventory. American J. Otology 19(6) 804-808
- Powell, L. E. and A. M. Myers (1995). "The Activities-specific Balance Confidence
(ABC) Scale." J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci 50A(1): M28-34.
- Saxena A, Prabhakar MC.Performance of DHI score as a predictor of benign paroxysmal positional vertigo in geriatric patients with dizziness/vertigo: a cross-sectional study. PLoS One. 2013;8(3):e58106. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0058106. Epub 2013 Mar 5.
- Tinetti ME, Richman D and Powell L (1990). "Falls efficacy as a measure
of fear of falling." Journal of Gerontology 45(6): 239-43.
- Whitney, S. L., M. T. Hudak, et al. (1999). "The activities-specific balance
confidence scale and the dizziness handicap inventory: a comparison." J Vestib
Res 9(4): 253-9.
August 3, 2016
, Timothy C. Hain, M.D.
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August 3, 2016