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Cerebellum Anatomy Relevant to Dizziness

Timothy C. Hain, MD Marcello Cherchi, M.D., Ph.D. Page last modified: June 14, 2009

This page is meant to provide a general outline of cerebellar function. It is adapted from a clinical neuroanatomy lecture given on a yearly basis to Northwestern PT students. This page is "under construction" and should not be relied upon.

Normal axial MRI
The cerebellum with surrounding skull and spinal fluid occupies the bottom 1/3 of this axial MRI image.

 

What is the cerebellum and what does it do ?

The cerebellum is part of the brain. It lies under the cerebrum, towards the back, behind the brainstem and above the brainstem. The cerebellum is largely involved in "coordination". Persons whose cerebellum doesn't work well are generally clumsy and unsteady. They may look like they are drunk even when they are not.

 

Gross Anatomy:

Cerebellar Hemispheres and Vermis

cerebellar hemispheres

http://www.benbest.com/science/anatmind/FigII8.gif

 

Gross Anatomy: Lobes & Lobules

Gross Anatomy: Fissures

Connections with brainstem:

cerebellar afferents

Afferent connections with spinal cord and brain

 

Cerebellar efferents
Cerebellar Efferents

Efferent connections

 

Sections of the Cerebellum

Vestibulocerebellum or archicerebellum

Spinocerebellum or paleocerebellum

Cerebrocerebellum or neocerebellum

CEREBELLAR PEDUNCLES

Cerebellar pathways

http://thalamus.wustl.edu/course/cerebell.html

 

Superior cerebellar peduncle (brachium conjunctivum)

 

Middle cerebellar peduncle (brachium pontis)

Inferior cerebellar peduncle (“corpus restiform” or “restiform body”)

Connects to medulla

Cerebellar Nuclei

cerebellar nuclei

http://www.hallym.ac.kr/~de1610/nana/8-6.jpg

 

Fastigial nucleus

Function:

Globose and emboliform (the “interposed nuclei”)

Dentate nucleus

Vestibular nucleus

CEREBELLAR Histology:

cortical layers layer circuits

http://education.vetmed.vt.edu/Curriculum/VM8054

/Labs/Lab9/Examples/excereb.htm

http://www.anatomy.dal.ca/Human_Neuroanatomy/

handout%20gifs/cerebellum.jpg

 

Cortical Layers

Histology: Cell Types

Purkinje Cells

Largest cells in CNS (cell body = 60-90 µm in diameter)

Cell body

Dendrite

Axon

layers 2

http://www.mfi.ku.dk/ppaulev/chapter4/images/fp4-8.jpg

Granule Cells

granule cells

http://www.mona.uwi.edu/fpas/courses/physiology/neurophysiology/CerebellCellConnxns.JPG

 

1 x 1011 granule cells (more neurons than entire cerebral cortex!)

Cell body

Axon

Golgi Cells

Basket Cells

Stellate Cells

Cerebellar Circuits


Mossy Fiber System

Climbing Fiber System


Monoaminergic Fiber System

The monoaminergic projections to cerebellum send fibers to all three layers of cerebellar cortex.

Projections include:

 

 

Cerebellar Arterial Vasculature

brainstem arteries

SCA (superior cerebellar artery)

AICA (anterior inferior cerebellar artery)

PICA (posterior inferior cerebellar artery)

 

Clinical Correlates of Cerebellar disease

Postural instability

Maneuvers:

Other Clinical Correlates

dysdiadocho

http://medicine.tamu.edu/neuro/cerebell.htm

 

Errors in smoothness and direction of movement

Lack of coordination or synergy of movement (“decomposition” of complex movements)

Lack of motor plasticity or motor learning

Hypotonia

REFERENCES:

 

Copyright October 6, 2013 , Timothy C. Hain, M.D. All rights reserved. Last saved on October 6, 2013